Definition and Usage Areas of Nitric acid
Nitric acid is a strong inorganic acid that is popularly known as cezap. Since its salts are called nitrate, it is also defined as nitrate acid. The 100% state of HNO3, which is shown with the formula HNO3, is called absolute nitric acid, and the state of 60-66%, which is offered for sale in commerce, is called ordinary nitric acid, in other words, cezap. HNO3, which is smokeless up to 69%, becomes smoky with the increase of this density and starts to fog even in the open air. In ancient times, nitric acid obtained from saltpeter began to be obtained in other ways, since it is not ubiquitous and the acid is used in explosives. This gave rise to a fairly large nitrogen industry in the industry.
Pure nitric acid, which is colorless, boils at 86 degrees. Since it is an unstable compound, it slowly converts to nitrogen oxides at room temperature. Common nitric acid, on the other hand, is usually brown in color because it contains nitrogen dioxide. One of the strongest acids, nitrate acid is used as a strong oxidation agent: With this effect, it forms metals, salts and free hydrogen. Forms oxides with some metals and nonmetals. When combined with chloridric acid, it becomes the only mixture that dissolves gold.
Nitric acid, which is produced synthetically with the establishment of the nitrogen industry, can be obtained in different ways today. If the ammonia industry is developed in some countries, ammonia is used in production. While ammonia is passed through the catalysts in gaseous form with air, the ammonia nitrogen combined with the oxygen in the air forms nitrous oxide. Nitrous oxide is converted to nitric acid along with oxygen and water.
Since HNO3 is a mixture of air, nitrogen and oxygen in Norway and electrical energy is quite cheap in this country, these gases are combined with electrical energy. This method is called the Norwegian method or the Haber Ostwald method. In this method, the air is passed through the high temperature area created by the electric arc using a suitable current. At this stage, nitrogen and oxygen combine and become nitrous oxide. In the cold area, oxygen and water combine again to form nitric acid.
- It is used in fertilizer production.
- It is used in the purification of metals in the metal industry.
- It is used during the etching process of metals.
- It is used in the production of explosives.
- It is used in places such as water treatment where PH needs to be reduced.
- It is used in the paint chemicals industry.
- It is used in the production of dynamite.
- It is used to produce silver nitrate.
- It is used in electro polishing processes.